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The real Dr. Funk
bigbrotiki
Tiki Socialite

Joined: Mar 25, 2002
Posts: 11159
From: Tiki Island, above the Silverlake
Posted: 2012-03-05 6:23 pm   Permalink

Quote:

On 2012-03-05 16:29, TikiTomD wrote:
I’m working on a lead to acquire a copy of this 17-year old out-of-print Local History Yearbook of the Regional Museum of Neubrandenburg, containing an article by Peter Maubach entitled “Dr. Bernhard Funk (1844-1911) : ein Neubrandenburger in der Südsee” (translation: “Dr Bernhard Funk (1844-1911): a Neubrandenburger in the South Seas”)...





Ya killin' me Tom, ya killin' me! Deep research in my own backyard! You are relentless! Kompliment, mein Herr.


 
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bigbrotiki
Tiki Socialite

Joined: Mar 25, 2002
Posts: 11159
From: Tiki Island, above the Silverlake
Posted: 2012-03-05 6:31 pm   Permalink

Couldn't resist:

http://www.abebooks.de/servlet/SearchResults?sts=t&tn=neubrandenburger+mosaik&x=21&y=14

And they're very cheap, too! I might get me one...of course I clarify any question you have.


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TikiTomD
Grand Member (4 years)  

Joined: Sep 20, 2009
Posts: 675
From: Flagler Beach, FL
Posted: 2012-03-06 03:17 am   Permalink

Quote:

On 2012-03-05 18:31, bigbrotiki wrote:
Couldn't resist:

http://www.abebooks.de/servlet/SearchResults?sts=t&tn=neubrandenburger+mosaik&x=21&y=14

And they're very cheap, too! I might get me one...of course I clarify any question you have.



Sven, I noticed that the picture yearbooks listed at AbeBooks.de above are for years other than 1995, the edition that contains the Dr. Funk article, or perhaps it's no longer listed because you ordered it. Search for Issue #19, 1995, if you're trying to capture Peter Maubach's article. Of course, any edition is likely to be quite interesting...

-Tom


 
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bigbrotiki
Tiki Socialite

Joined: Mar 25, 2002
Posts: 11159
From: Tiki Island, above the Silverlake
Posted: 2012-03-06 08:08 am   Permalink

Darn, thanks, I had just glanced at the list! Well I found it on another site and ordered it.

Tom, you have distinguished yourself in this subject so much, I want to ask you to write a small chapter on the good Dr for an upcoming book of mine - of course it has to have the cocktail tie-in, and some Stevenson stuff, well, the things that tie it all in to early Polynesian pop. The book will have several other guest authors.


 
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TikiTomD
Grand Member (4 years)  

Joined: Sep 20, 2009
Posts: 675
From: Flagler Beach, FL
Posted: 2012-03-06 5:11 pm   Permalink

Sven, I’d be absolutely delighted and honored to contribute a small Dr. Funk chapter to your upcoming book

Work is forcing an unintended intermission in the story, but back soon...

-Tom


 
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TikiTomD
Grand Member (4 years)  

Joined: Sep 20, 2009
Posts: 675
From: Flagler Beach, FL
Posted: 2012-03-07 6:03 pm   Permalink

Pausing Dr. Funk’s story briefly for some geographic and historic context before his arrival in Samoa...

1896 map of the Samoan Islands by George Cram



The Samoan Islands are south of the equator, between Hawai`i and New Zealand, west of the Cook Islands and north of Tonga. The island chain is about 290 miles long. The two major islands of Savai`i and Upolu on the map upper left, along with several smaller islands between them, are the Western Samoa of Dr. Funk’s times, with Apia and its harbor on the northwest shore of Upolu. Today, these are part of the Independent State of Samoa, with Apia as the capital city.

The islands in the map center and right comprise Eastern Samoa, principally Tutuila and the Manu`a Islands, now known as American Samoa, an unincorporated territory of the US. Pago Pago on Tutuila is the capital village, though the official seat of government is in Fagatogo village.

The first recorded European contact with Samoa occurred on June 13, 1722 when Commodore Jacob Roggeveen of the Dutch West India Company, on an exploration mission to find Terra Australis, arrived within sight of Ta`u in the Manu`a Islands. His two ships, Arend and Theinhoven, were approached by three outrigger canoes launched by the native Ta`uans. They were allowed to board and visit for several hours, then Roggeveen ejected the Ta`uans and sailed off to the west.

According to Captain J.A.C. Gray, USN, in his 1960 American naval history of Samoa, Amerika Samoa, Roggeveen next sailed into the bay between Ofu and Olosega. The High Chief of Ofu attempted to lure the visitors onto shore in order to fulfill custom: one of their representatives would be required to fight a warclub duel with the local champion to determine their fitness to land. Seeing warriors on the shore, the visitors wisely chose not to land the small boat they had dispatched from the ships. The High Chief set out in his war canoe to meet them, taking along his ceremonially clad village virgin. After a brief but not unfriendly encounter in the bay, Roggeveen sailed on. Though he never sighted the Australian continent of his quest, Roggeveen discovered, in addition to Samoa, Easter Island (Rapa Nui) on April 5, 1722 (Easter Sunday).

Map showing route of Roggeveen’s expedition
Roggeveen’s Scheepsjournaal: gerhouden op het schip Tienhoven tijdens de ontdekkingsreis van Jacob Roggeveen, 1721-1722 (Middelburg, 1911)



The next recorded contact came in 1768 when French explorer, Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, appeared off Eastern Samoa and bartered trinkets for fresh fruit with the inhabitants of Ofu and Olosega. Admiring the way the native Samoans handled their canoes, he called their home “Les Iles des Navigateurs,” by which name, or its English equivalent, “The Navigator Islands,” they were long known.

From Bougainville’s A Voyage Round the World (Dublin, 1772)



On December 10, 1787, the crews of two ships under command of the French naval officer, Jean François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse, landed on Tutuila in Eastern Samoa to refill the ships’ casks with fresh water. A friendly reception was marred by only one incident, when a Samoan jumped into one of the landing boats in an attempt to make off with an iron spike. Lapérouse had the man seized, chastised and released. Unfortunately, the punished Samoan was among a group of warriors from Upolu who were visiting the subordinate Tutuilans to exact a periodic ceremonial tribute. The next day, when a shore crew returned to finish replenishing their water casks, they were attacked by vengeful Upoluan warriors, killing twelve of them, including a ship’s captain.

When Captain Edwards of HMS Pandora showed up just four years later, sent by the British Admiralty to find Christian Fletcher and his band of merry mutineers from the HMS Bounty, the Samoans were not in a welcoming mood. Upoluan warriors attacked from outrigger canoes at night, with loss of life on both sides. Fairly or not, the Samoans were getting a reputation as Polynesians with an “attitude.”

The Pandora brought to a close the 18th century European encounters. Starting in the 19th century, native Samoans could no longer count on enjoying their cocktail hour without interruption from uninvited Europeans. The Samoans just had no luck at all, as next to arrive were representatives of the London Missionary Society, not known for being sociable drinkers. The Samoan cocktail was, of course, that most authentic of Polynesian intoxicants, kava...

Andrew, Thomas, 1855-1939 : Kava making, Samoa, [189?]
Reference Number: PA1-o-469-58

Four young women making kava, photographed in Western Samoa, 1890s, by Thomas Andrew; note the tapa cloth backdrop



Appearing on the scene in 1830 was the Reverend John Williams, who arrived with Charles Barff of the London Missionary Society to introduce Christianity to the Samoans. This is the same Reverend Williams who explored the Cook Islands and much of the South Pacific, discussed in this Tiki Central post. You can also read there about his final rendezvous in 1839 with some truly pissed-off cannibals in the New Hebrides.

As noted earlier in this thread, the Hamburg merchant venture firm, J.C. Godeffroy & Son, determined that they could make lots of money in the coconut oil and copra trade in the South Pacific, so the firm sent August Unshelm to the Pacific in 1854 on a mission to locate and secure an accessible port in a centralized location to serve as the firm’s regional headquarters. According to Silvia Masterman’s 1934 book, The Origins of International Rivalry in Samoa: 1845-1884, Unshelm first visited Apia, Samoa in May of 1854. In 1856 he came for a second time, and strongly recommended it as a commercial center. By 1857, the firm was established there. In 1864, Unshelm drowned at sea, so Theodore Weber, his 21-year old assistant, took over and proved to be an even more capable executive. He established permanent coconut plantations on the best land available. According to Captain J.A.C. Gray’s Amerika Samoa, the plantations were splendid affairs with the coconut palms set in orderly rows at precisely the intervals calculated for maximum yield. They had German overseers and used indentured labor. The native Samoans regarded regular work for wages as sheer lunacy, so they continued to enjoy the good life as they knew it outside the plantations, while amazed and amused at what went on inside them.

House Flag of J.C. Godeffroy und Sohn



Map of Upolu in 1884 showing German Plantation Locations



Here’s an antique photo of one of the original German coconut plantations on Samoa; that plantation survives to this day and is claimed to be the largest in the Southern Hemisphere...

View of Mulifanua coconut palm plantation, Samoa, [ca1905]
Reference Number: PAColl-3062-3-56

View of the Mulifanua coconut palm plantation, Samoa, photographed by Alfred John Tattersall in about 1905



[Artist unknown]: Town and harbour of Apia on the Island of Upolu, Navigator Group, South Pacific [ca 1867]
Reference Number: C-036-005

Extensive view of the waterfront at Apia, viewed from the sea, with canoes, including a large one in the right foreground with a sail, European ships. European-style dwellings along the foreshore with coconut palms. The American flag is flying beside one house. The major buildings have been identified as, from the far left, Ruge's [?] establishment, Protestant Mission House, British and American Consul, Native Chapel and burial ground, Resident British Consuls, R[oman] C[atholic] Chapel, Deans [?] Est[a]b[lishment], Godeffroy and Son Hamburg, Mulingu ... seat of Native Government, now held by Germany. As Godeffroy and Son were established in Samoa in 1865, this suggests that the print was produced around or slightly after this date. The wave effects in the foreground mark the edge of the reef from which Apia is viewed.



Next, Samoa calls for a doctor...

-Tom


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JOHN-O
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Joined: May 16, 2008
Posts: 2691
From: Dogtown, USA
Posted: 2012-03-07 6:51 pm   Permalink

Quote:

On 2012-03-06 08:08, bigbrotiki wrote:

Tom, you have distinguished yourself in this subject so much, I want to ask you to write a small chapter on the good Dr for an upcoming book of mine...


Nice !! And well deserved.





Tom, in the short time you've been posting you've joined the ranks of Dustycajun and Sabu the Coconut Boy as far as true Tiki content is concerned.

Thank you !! (Also when are you coming out to LA ??)


 
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mangogirl
Tiki Centralite

Joined: Jul 02, 2009
Posts: 17
Posted: 2012-03-08 10:01 am   Permalink

A big Mahalo Brotha!!! I just love reading about Dr. Funk! Does anyone ever write any books from Tiki Central? There are so many people, drinks and locations that would fill Volumes! It's such great fun! I loved learning about Dr. Funk. I loved the picture of the contemporary Dr. Funk! A little humor is always invited! Happy Day, Mangogirl

 
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TikiTomD
Grand Member (4 years)  

Joined: Sep 20, 2009
Posts: 675
From: Flagler Beach, FL
Posted: 2012-03-09 2:24 pm   Permalink

JOHN-O, you honor me greatly by invoking the names of those true Masters of Tiki Archaeology, DustyCajun and Sabu... I am but a mere grasshopper in their presence. As for a trip to LA, even for business, that seems distant given the current high operational tempo we have here at the Cape. I am imposing on my colleagues to take a few days off in April to attend Hukilau.

Mangogirl, glad you’re enjoying the thread.

---------

One more aside, please, before resuming and establishing how all of this connects to Dr. Funk’s story, as there are a couple of interesting items to cover regarding the South Seas agents of J.C. Godeffroy & Son...

In the post just above, August Unshelm was cited as the agent responsible for establishing Apia, Samoa as the regional trade headquarters for J.C. Godeffroy & Son, before his loss at sea in 1864. Here’s an old newspaper excerpt from the National Library of New Zealand that reports the circumstances of Unshelm’s death...

Otago Daily Times July 11, 1864


(part of article omitted here)



Unshelm’s youthful replacement, Theodore Weber, was called “the most remarkable man in the early history of Samoa” by Robert MacKenzie Watson. In his 1918 History of Samoa, Watson went on to say...

Quote:
According to Robert Louis Stevenson, and indeed many others, his methods were a sort of skilful admixture of the tactics of Machiavelli and a caveman, but however that may be they seem at least to have gained him, as Stevenson freely admits, the respect of the whole community, white and native. By the end of 1869, that is in little upward of five years, he had as Trood says, "established a net-work of trading stations from New Britain on the north to Tongatabu on the south, including the Line Islands.” In the choice of his traders he took no account of nationality. For those seeking employment he had, it is said, but three questions, and all required affirmative answers: "Can you speak the language?" “Can you live among natives without quarrelling with them?” "Can you keep your mouth shut?" Two points of advice were given: “Have a woman of your own, no matter what island you take her from; for a trader without a wife is in eternal hot water;" and "Give no assistance to missionaries either by word or deed, beyond what is demanded of you by common humanity" - for the missionary taught the native that cloth or coin were better payment for produce than beads and tobacco.




In A Footnote to History, Robert Louis Stevenson said of Weber, after Weber’s death in 1889...

Quote:
He was an artful and commanding character; in the smallest thing or in the greatest, without fear or scruple; equally able to affect, equally able to adopt, the most engaging politeness or the most imperious airs of domination. It was he who did most damage to rival traders; it was he who most harried the Samoans; and yet I have never met anyone, white or native, who did not respect his memory. All felt that it was a gallant battle, and the man a great fighter: and now when he is dead, and the war seems to have gone against him, many can scarce remember, without a kind of regret, how much devotion and audacity have been spent in vain. His name still lives in the songs of Samoa.



-Tom


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TikiTomD
Grand Member (4 years)  

Joined: Sep 20, 2009
Posts: 675
From: Flagler Beach, FL
Posted: 2012-03-10 09:42 am   Permalink

Following victory in the Franco-Prussian War, Germany unified into a formal nation state, accomplished by a series of declarations and treaties over January to May of 1871. There was economic hardship and high unemployment most everywhere in Europe at the time, extending to the US in the long depression that began in 1873.

From the information at hand, it’s not clear how long Dr. Funk remained in military service after the Franco-Prussian War, or precisely what he did for the next six years after the war. Perhaps that will be revealed by the Neubrandenburg Museum Yearbook article. But, courtesy of Leilani Burgoyne’s “Going ‘Troppo’ in the South Pacific: Dr. Bernhard Funk of Samoa 1844–1911,” we pick up his story again in 1878, when he was hired to be a medical officer for the Hamburg American Steamship Company. This was a transatlantic shipping enterprise more formally known as the Hamburg-Amerikanische Paketfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft (HAPAG), which literally translates as Hamburg American Packet-shipping Joint Stock Company. It was sometimes also referred to as the Hamburg America Line.

House Flag of HAPAG Shipping Line (center detail)



The company was established at Hamburg in 1947. Adolph Godeffroy, its co-founder and presiding officer until 1880, was the brother of Johann Cesar Godeffroy, who in turn was the head of J.C. Godeffroy & Son, the Hamburg firm that had established a regional headquarters for copra and coconut oil trade in Apia, Samoa in 1857. HAPAG made its money serving the market created by German and Eastern European immigration to the United States. It grew into the largest German shipping company and, at times, was the world’s largest shipping company. HAPAG still exists today, but merged in 1970 with Bremen-based North German Lloyd to form
Hapag-Lloyd AG.

HAPAG Postcard ca 1915



After two years of service with HAPAG, Dr. Funk was offered a position as medical officer for J.C Godeffroy & Son at the Samoa plantations of the firm, presumably because word of his medical proficiency reached the firm through its family and business ties with HAPAG. He accepted the offer.

When 35-year old Dr. Bernhard Funk stepped ashore at Apia Harbor in February of 1880, he might have imagined many things to come, but surely not his enduring legacy as a namesake cocktail known in his own time from “from Samoa to Tahiti… in every bar and club” and even today more than one hundred years after his passing, nor his destiny to meet, befriend and serve as family physician to one of the most celebrated literary geniuses of the 19th century, Robert Louis Stevenson, a circumstance that would immortalize him in literature as a peculiar South Seas character of the period. Regardless of what crossed his mind, the arrival of the first fully qualified resident medical practitioner and surgeon in Apia was a cause for celebration among the local population.

Dr. Funk immediately went to work, traveling almost daily between the huge coconut plantation at Utumapu and his home at Sogi in the Apia district, where he established a small private hospital. That was quite a distance, as Utumapu is about nine miles from Apia, and horse or horse carriage would have been the mode of transit. He would treat patients of the plantation in the morning and make house calls in the afternoon. According to Leilani’s paper, Dr. Funk treated everyone without regard to race or nationality, or even ability to pay. Llewella Pierce Churchill, wife of the American Consul in Samoa, wrote in her 1902 book, Samoa `Uma...

Quote:
The practitioner of the healing art among such islanders as these is essentially a missionary, no matter what may be the terms of his residence. The health officer of Apia is Dr. Bernhard Funk, who has resided in Samoa for more than twenty years and has acquired great familiarity with the islanders' ailments. He was for a long time the only medical man in the kingdom, and though a private practitioner, never restrained his hand from healing because the sick was but a savage who would never pay the fee.



As noted in an earlier post, her book carries a dedication to Dr. Funk...




Leilani observed that the lack of roads and limited means of communication were significant obstacles in Funk’s ability to treat his patients effectively, and he was often alerted to urgent cases by letter or messenger, slow and susceptible to misinterpretation.

As a trade center and primary port of entry, Apia was routinely plagued by a whole range of introduced diseases, among them typhus, influenza, tuberculosis, dysentery, whooping cough, measles, mumps and the dreaded “white curse”, venereal disease. In the particular case cited below, Dr. Funk had to deal with a bubonic plague risk posed by an arriving ship from Honolulu...

The Hawaiian Gazette February 6, 1900






At the time of Dr. Funk’s offer of employment by J.C. Godeffroy & Son, the firm was already in financial distress from bad European investments. According to The Origins of International Rivalry in Samoa: 1845-1884, the South Sea business, the most successful portion of the firm's activities, was consolidated into a stock company in 1878 formally named Die Deutsche Handels und Plantaeng Gesellschaft der Südsee Inseln zu Hamburg (DHPG), though the majority of shares remained in the hands of Godeffroy & Son. Robert Louis Stevenson stated in A Footnote to History that this “is (in practice) shortened to the D. H. and P. G., the Old Firm, the German Firm, the Firm, and (among humorists) the Long Handle Firm.” Baring Brothers of London advanced a loan secured by the firm’s Samoa holdings and the Godeffroy shares, postponing failure about a year. The ultimate failure of Godeffroy & Son in December 1879 threatened to throw into British hands the greater part of German interests in Samoa, so Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany, appealed to the German government for a bailout. This was not approved, but a German board of directors was hastily assembled to assume the Godeffroy debt from Baring Brothers, preserving the German interests in Samoa. The new directors carried on the traditions, methods, and policy of its forerunner.

Here’s an excerpt from a 1900 map showing the Apia area, including the Utumapu plantation that was the location of Dr. Funk’s medical practice for the German Firm (from the digital collections of the National Library of Australia)...

Spezialkarte der Samoa-Inseln [cartographic material] / Paul Langhans
Published by Gotha, [Germany] : J. Perthes, 1900



The following newspaper article offers an overview of the political, social and physical conditions in Samoa of the times, including a description of Apia...

Otago Daily Times August 20, 1885














Some photos of Apia from the time of Dr. Funk...

Burton Brothers :Apia, Samoa, 1884
Reference Number: PA1-q-223-16-1

View of Apia, Western Samoa, taken on 1884 by Alfred Burton



Charles H Kerry & Company fl 1883-1913 (Firm; Sydney, N.S.W.) : Photograph of Apia, Samoa, from the reef, ca 1885
Reference Number: PAColl-8834

Photograph of Apia, Samoa, taken from the reef, circa 1885; shows buildings and vegetation on the coastline; photograph taken by Charles H Kerry & Company



And here are yet some more views of Apia, from Llewella Churchill’s Samoa `Uma...

Apia, the little town strung along the beach, ca 1900



Wharf of the German Firm – Apia, ca 1900



Raising of the German flag in Samoa, 1900
Reference Number: 1/2-045042-F

Raising of the German flag in Samoa, 1900; photographer unidentified



German Flag of Samoa



----------

As an aside, while researching the HAPAG lines, I ran across this item from the Hamburg shipping firm of A. Kirsten...

House Flag of A. Kirsten Shipping Line



-Tom


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TikiTomD
Grand Member (4 years)  

Joined: Sep 20, 2009
Posts: 675
From: Flagler Beach, FL
Posted: 2012-03-11 12:48 pm   Permalink

It’s amazing he found the time amidst a busy medical practice, but our eccentric German physician, Dr. Funk, made a scholarly study of the Samoan language, with a particular focus on medical terminology. He published his findings in 1893 in a single 82-page volume that also contained his notes on Samoan meteorology and a map of Apia Harbor:

Bernhard Funk, Kurze Anleitung zum Verständniß der Samoanischen Sprache: Grammatik und Vokabularium : nebst einem Anhange: Meteorologische Notizen; mit einem Plane von Apia, Ernst Siegfried Mittler und Sohn, Berlin (1893).

According to the Google translator, the title in English is Short Guide to the Samoan language understanding: Grammar and vocabulary -- in addition to an appendix: Meteorological Notes, with a plan of Apia. The book is long out of print and seems to only be available at various state and university libraries in Germany.

I found several references to Dr. Funk’s book in The Journal of the Polynesian Society. In the first article, William Churchill commended Dr. Funk for his insight on Samoan diphthongs...

The Journal of the Polynesian Society Volume 17, Number 2, December 1908



Dr. Funk’s statement above is translated from German by the Google translator as “The diphthongs are not, as in the German language, spoken as a sound, but always with a slight indication of both vowels.”

The second article cited Dr. Funk’s book in a list of published dictionaries of the Polynesian language...

The Journal of the Polynesian Society Volume 13, Number 2, June 1904



Leilani Burgoyne, in “Going ‘Troppo’ in the South Pacific: Dr. Bernhard Funk of Samoa 1844–1911,” states that Dr. Funk’s book was perhaps one of the earliest to detail Samoan language and grammar. Written in Samoan, German and English, she cites it as an indication of Funk’s commitment to understand Samoan ways and traditional medicine. It seems that Western medicine and the traditional regularly intersected in his practice, as Dr. Funk might initially be called upon by a native Samoan to perform an operation or provide urgent care, then the patient would invariably turn to a traditional Samoan healer, a Fofo or Taulasea, for follow-up care. Leilani notes that however frustrating this might have been to the good doctor, the evidence is that he never gave up continuing to treat his Samoan patients.

------------

A bit of Southern Hemisphere medical humor...


Heath, Eric Walmsley, 1923- : I told you they would bring in overseas doctors if we went on strike! October 1985.
Reference Number: C-133-026

The cartoon shows a group of doctors on strike outside Wellington Hospital. They are carrying signs informing their superiors of their strike. A bus has just arrived at the hospital and several stereotypical African witch doctors are walking into the hospital. Refers to a strike by doctors at Wellington Hospital.



------------

While trying to locate Dr. Funk’s book, I ran across another title, this one the 1838 medical thesis of his father, Dr. Wilhelm Bernhard Funk, written in Latin...

De testiculi degeneratione fungosa ex casu quodam illustrata : Dissertatio Inauguralis

I hesitated to translate the title, given the easily inferred subject, but here it is: Spongy Degeneration of the Testicles Illustrated by a Case: A Thesis. Let’s hope this malady wasn’t common beyond the 19th century, perhaps limited to those who routinely rode horses in uncomfortable saddles, or maybe an occupational hazard of early cavalry officers.

In the unlikely case anyone's interested, copies may still be found in several German university libraries, as well as various medical school libraries around the world, including Cornell and Harvard.

-Tom


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TikiTomD
Grand Member (4 years)  

Joined: Sep 20, 2009
Posts: 675
From: Flagler Beach, FL
Posted: 2012-03-14 02:05 am   Permalink

After an intense day at work, I made us a Dr. Funk cocktail using the 1947 Trader Vic’s Bar Guide recipe posted by bigbrotiki back on page 1 of this thread. I used 2½ fl oz of Myers’s Original Dark Rum for the dark Jamaican rum and ginger ale instead of charged water (no soda water on hand).

I say, this is quite a nice drink, not at all sweet, and it’s certainly potent.

--------

In the prior post, we saw that Dr. Funk’s interests in the Samoan language and in meteorology culminated in his publication of a book in 1893 addressing both subjects. You might also be surprised, as I was, to know that his meteorological work lives on in the digital library of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), through this US Weather Bureau
Monthly Weather Review published in August of 1930...







According to Leilani Burgoyne in “Going ‘Troppo’ in the South Pacific: Dr. Bernhard Funk of Samoa 1844–1911,” Dr. Funk continued to collect Samoan meteorological observations for the Seewarte (Naval Observatory) in Hamburg and the German Firm (D.P.H.G.) until 1911. He was also involved in the establishment of the Apia Observatory at Mulinu`u, meeting with its founder, Otto Tetens, a number of times in 1902.

A 2002 poster (see Note 4 of this web page) celebrating the 100th anniversary of Apia Observatory uses photos taken by Otto Tetens...




Take a look at the lower right poster photo, expanded here; the figure on the right behind the telescope sure looks like Dr. Funk observing a solar eclipse on a piece of paper (Leilani indicated that an Otto Tetens photo existed with Dr. Funk in it)...




Or maybe it’s just my imagination, an effect of the Dr. Funk cocktail.

For his outstanding work in weather reporting, the German government awarded Dr. Funk the Order of the Red Eagle (4th Class) in 1910...




-Tom


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TikiTomD
Grand Member (4 years)  

Joined: Sep 20, 2009
Posts: 675
From: Flagler Beach, FL
Posted: 2012-03-16 09:24 am   Permalink

Dr. Funk’s time in Samoa was one of simmering tension among the colonial powers (Germany, Great Britain, USA) and also among native Samoan factions primarily split between Malietoa Laupepa and Mata`afa Iosefa, both Samoan royalty, the former backed by the colonial powers and the latter supported by the majority of Samoans as the traditional high chief of all Samoa. At times, the situation broke into open conflict. The Samoan principals in this...

Photograph of Malietoa Laupepa, ca1880s
Reference Number: PA1-q-610-40-2

Malietoa Laupepa, one of the contenders for royal status during the Samoan civil wars prior to the German occupation in 1899



Photograph of Tamasese Titimaea, ca 1890s
Reference Number: PA1-q-610-38-3

Photograph of Tamasese Titimaea, one of the contenders for royal status in the Samoan civil wars prior to the German occupation in 1899



Photograph of Mata'afa Iosefa, ca1890s
Reference Number: PA1-q-610-38-1

Portrait of Mata'afa Iosefa, one of the contenders for royal status in Samoa prior to the German occupation in 1899



Photograph of the first chief [unidentified] killed during the Samoan war, ca1880s
Reference Number: PA1-q-610-40-1




Harry Jay Moors, a long-time American businessman in Apia and close friend of Robert Louis Stevenson while he lived in Samoa, wrote a fascinating account, With Stevenson in Samoa, published in 1910, that detailed the close rapport between Stevenson and the native Samoans, particularly with Mata`afa, the Samoan high chief, considered by the colonial powers as a rebel king. The native Samoans knew Stevenson as “Tusitala,” the writer of tales. Long after Stevenson’s death, Mata`afa wrote Moors a letter in remembrance of him...






Stevenson wrote about the Samoan conflict in A Footnote to History - Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa, published in 1895.

Jane’s Oceania web site has a top-level Samoan chronological history that helps to decode the confusing succession of native Samoan leaders and civil wars, as well as that of the colonial powers.

Returning to Dr. Funk: About a year and a half after he arrived in Samoa, Dr. Funk wrote this letter to the editor in support of actions taken by American and German naval commanders to quell civil disturbances (rare chance for us to see Dr. Funk through his own words)...

The Auckland Evening Star August 26, 1881











On March 15-16, 1889, a flotilla of American, German, and British warships was present at Apia, Samoa, protecting national interests during a dispute of sovereignty when a hurricane struck. The USS Trenton, USS Vandalia, and USS Nipsic were driven ashore, with the loss of 50 American lives. Germany lost 96 sailors and three warships, SMS Adler, SMS Olga, and SMS Eber. Those six ships had confronted each other in a tense standoff over several months in Apia Harbor, monitored by the British warship, HMS Calliope, which survived. The disaster undoubtedly overwhelmed Dr. Funk with patients, though it also served to relieve tensions among all factions. Notably, the native Samoans ceased their fighting and did what they could to help rescue American and European sailors, as pointed out in this news article from the National Library of New Zealand...

The Otago Daily Times April 1, 1889





















Wrecked German warship HIMS Adler, Apia, Samoa, [1889]
Reference Number: PA1-q-107-43-1

View of the wrecked warship HIMS Adler lying on her side in Apia Harbour. Photographed by an unknown photographer in 1889



Consecrating the memorial to German sailors, Jan 4 1891, 4 January 1891
Reference Number: PA1-o-544-09

Consecrating the memorial to German sailors in Samoa, photographed 4 January 1891 by John Davis



Unveiling of a memorial stone at Mulinu'u, Samoa, [ca 1900]
Reference Number: PAColl-3062-3-03

Official unveiling of a memorial stone at Mulinu'u, Samoa, circa 1900. Photograph taken by Alfred John Tattersall



In March and April of 1899, open conflict broke out again in a big way, with the shelling of Apia occurring under orders of an American admiral...

The Daily Signal April 8, 1899 (page 1)







The American admiral ordered the temporary imprisonment of H.J. Moors, Stevenson’s friend, under suspicion that he was actively supporting Mata`afa. Destruction of homes and property in Apia was widespread, with looting and pillaging by the Samoans accounting for a good bit of it, as people fled the area. After the conflict subsided, citizens of all nationalities made claims for reparations, with German and British residents being paid reasonably promptly from their own respective governments. Germany then made claims against America and Great Britain as co-instigators. Shamefully, the American government failed to take any action at all to address claims of its own citizens until 1913, fourteen years after the event. By then, many of the claimants were deceased or had moved elsewhere. The whole story of this is well and interestingly told by this official document prepared for Congress by the US Secretary of State under direction of President William Henry Taft...




In this document, it is asserted...



Near the end of the document is a table of claims paid by the German government to its citizens, transmitted by the German Governor of Samoa, Dr. Schultz, to the Department of State. In the table, we see that Dr. Funk made a claim for damages of $525, but was only paid $210...




-Tom


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TikiTomD
Grand Member (4 years)  

Joined: Sep 20, 2009
Posts: 675
From: Flagler Beach, FL
Posted: 2012-03-17 1:32 pm   Permalink

Just received new Dr. Funk source material from a used bookseller in Berlin, where I had located a copy of the 1995 Local History Yearbook of the Regional Museum of Neubrandenburg containing the Peter Maubach article, “Dr. Bernhard Funk (1844-1911): ein Neubrandenburger in der Südsee” (translation: “Dr. Bernhard Funk (1844-1911): a Neubrandenburger in the South Seas”)...




Maybe bigbrotiki can help here, but the online German translator says that “Esel” in the bookseller’s name can be translated among alternatives that range from “donkey” to “bonehead” to “asshole.” Maybe it’s just the translator (more on that later).

Here are the front and back cover images of the yearbook...






The center photo on the front cover is of a younger Dr. Funk, and the back cover center right photo is of Senitima, his beautiful Samoan wife, both from the article inside the yearbook...






I can't discern facial scars or a “Schmiss” on Dr. Funk’s face in the photograph, but perhaps somone with better eyes might. Maybe it's hiding under that beard!

Here also is a better quality version of the old Dr. Funk photo posted in an earlier thread from Leilani Burgoyne’s paper, but originating from this article and contained in the museum archives...




Since the yearbook is written entirely in German, and I’ve only studied Latin and Spanish languages, there’s some work ahead for me to extract the gems from the article. Here’s how I plan to proceed:

1. Scan the pages at 600 dots per inch (dpi) due to small font; 300 dpi would normally be sufficient (complete).

2. Convert the scanned images into a text document using optical character recognition (OCR) software that recognizes German language characters (also complete).

3. Translate the resulting text documents from German to English using a software application (partially complete).

4. Assemble a passably understandable English text version from the garbled output of the translator software, rearranging sentence structure and changing words among alternative dictionary translations to establish correct context, with the help of the Google online translator (yet to be done).

I’m really impressed with the OCR software. It is close to 100% accurate with one mouse click, requiring only some minor tweaking to treat some of the graphics as pictures. If there are words in the graphics of a scanned image, the OCR software wants to turn the entire graphic into text, not necessarily desirable, and easily fixable with the software tools provided. I’m using ABBYY FineReader 11 Professional for that part of the job.

The translator capabilities are a different story. Language is not all that easy for humans, and is clearly still beyond a computer’s grasp with today’s software. I’m using a SYSTRAN product, the same company that provides translation software products to large companies and various government agencies. Undoubtedly the stuff provided to them is a higher end product than what I’m using, but the basics are the same. The output of the translator appears as if someone minimally literate in both source and destination languages took a stab at it after having way too many cocktails. It helps to have a few of those cocktails to understand the result... well, I’d best get busy, at least on those cocktails.

-Tom


 
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bigbrotiki
Tiki Socialite

Joined: Mar 25, 2002
Posts: 11159
From: Tiki Island, above the Silverlake
Posted: 2012-03-17 10:09 pm   Permalink

Dang, Tom, I wish I could help you with the translation right now, since your dedication to this subject is without equal! - but unfortunately I have other Tiki deadlines to meet at the moment. I did get my copy of the "Mosaik" just yesterday, and read it last night, thank you.

Two interesting findings I want to mention are that Funk gave the Neubrandenburg Museum his collection of 250 Oceanic, mainly Samoan artifacts - of which only one third is still there, two thirds are mentioned as "lost", simply. It seems that some of the vintage photos in the article following ours are from the Dr. Funk collection, which contains 60 large prints, but none of the Oceanic artifacts are I.D.ed as his.

The other info I could glean from the article is that he was let go by the Godeffroy Co (for no grave reasons but too long to explain), opened his own practice, and indeed was, as I assumed earlier, the kind of individual who developed a love for the native culture (not only because he was married to a chief's daughter) that put him beyond and outside of all the different national European interests in the area. Apparently he had two traditional Samoan Fales constructed behind his house in which he lived sometimes, and where many festivities took place (his backyard Tiki Bar?).

His love for land and people was noted in the "Cyclopedia of Samoa" in 1907:
"There is no one among the Europeans who is more popular...the familiar sight of him walking the beach with cigar and cane...as capable doctor and reliable friend he is indispensable to this place..."

So it seems tragic that in early 1911, he had to leave Samoa for medical care in Berlin, where he passed away in April, and was buried in Neubrandenburg.

P.S.: Regarding the lack of "Schmiss" in the above portrait, I am assuming it is either covered up by his beard, or the photo was taken at his admittance to university, and he had not been in a duel yet.


[ This Message was edited by: bigbrotiki 2012-03-18 07:53 ]


 
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